IJMECS Vol. 6, No. 10, 8 Oct. 2014

Cover page and Table of Contents: PDF (size: 912KB)

Full Text (PDF, 912KB), PP.57-83

Views: 0 Downloads: 0

Classification, Grid Computing, Grid Scheduling System, GIS (Grid Information Service), Heuristics.

Job scheduling is one of the thrust research area in the discipline of Grid computing. Scheduling in the Grid environment is not only complicated but also known to be NP-Complete problem and that is all due to its unique characteristics. Thus, there are limited opportunities to find an optimal solution. In recent past, many eminent researchers reported a variety of Scheduling Heuristics that can have a substantial impact on the performance of the Grid systems. Unfortunately, it gives rise to difficulty in evaluating and keeping track of those solutions. Therefore, the motivation of this comprehensive study is to present firstly, an in-depth review of the topic under discussion mostly in the perspective of Grid Scheduling environment, and secondly, a proposal for a new state-of-the-art classification of the existing Scheduling Heuristics. All these Heuristics in each category have been further studied based on significant parameters frequently used in Scheduling Heuristics. The final part of this study includes a fair assessment of those mostly used dominating parameters. This report deals with the key concepts behind existing Scheduling Heuristics including Objectives, Types of Job Scheduling, Functionality of Grid, Nature of Grid, and the importance of the proposed classification.

Manoj Kumar Mishra, Yashwant Singh Patel, Yajnaseni Rout, G.B. Mund, "A Survey on Scheduling Heuristics in Grid Computing Environment", International Journal of Modern Education and Computer Science (IJMECS), vol.6, no.10, pp.57-83, 2014. DOI:10.5815/ijmecs.2014.10.08

[1]Ian Foster and Carl Kesselman. The Grid: Blueprint for a New Computing Infrastructure. Morgan Kaufmann, 1998.

[2]Ian Foster and Carl Kesselman. The Grid 2: Blueprint for a New Computing Infrastructure, second edition. Morgan Kaufmann, 2004.

[3]F. Dong, S.K. Akl, Scheduling algorithms for grid computing: State of the art and open problems, Technical Report No. 2006-504, School of Computing, Queen’s University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada, January 2006.

[4]Dalibor Klusacek. Scheduling in Grid Environment. PhD thesis, Masaryk University, Brno, 2008.

[5]Survey On Grid Scheduling, Journal of Computer Applications, Vol. 3, No. 3, July-Sept 2010, pp. 22-29.

[6]D.I. George Amalarethinam and P. Muthulakshmi, "An Overview of the scheduling policies and algorithms in Grid Computing", International Journal of Research and Reviews in Computer Science, Vol. 2, No. 2, 2011, pp. 280-294.

[7]Thilagavathi, D., and Antony Selvadoss Thanamani. "Heuristics in Grid Scheduling." International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Engineering & Technology (IJARCET), Vol. 2, Issue 8, August 2013.

[8]O. H. Ibarra and C. E. Kim, Heuristic algorithms for scheduling independent tasks on non identical processors, J. ACM 24, 2 (Apr. 1977), pp. 280-289.

[9]Hojjat Baghban, Amir Masoud Rahmani, “ A Heuristic on Job Scheduling in Grid Computing Environment”, In Proceedings of the seventh IEEE International Conference on Grid and Cooperative Computing, 2008, pp. 141-146.

[10]Li Wenzheng, Zhang Wenyue, “An Improved Scheduling Algorithm for Grid Tasks”, International Symposium on Intelligent Ubiquitous Computing and Education, 2009, pp. 9-12.

[11]H. El-Rewini, T. Lewis, and H. Ali, Task Scheduling in Parallel and Distributed Systems, ISBN: 0130992356, PTR Prentice Hall, 1994.

[12]D. Fernandez-Baca. Allocating modules to processors in a distributed system. IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, 15(11), 1989, pp. 1427–1436.

[13]Tracy D.Braun, Howard Jay Siegel, and Noah Beck, “A Comparison of Eleven Static Heuristics for Mapping a Class of Independent Tasks onto Heterogeneous Distributed Computing Systems”, Journal of Parallel and Distributed Computing 61, 2001, pp.810-837.

[14]T.Braun, H.Siegel, N.Beck, L.Boloni, M.Maheshwaran, A.Reuther, J.Robertson, M.Theys, B.Yao, D.Hensgen, and R.Freund, “A Comparison Study of Static Mapping Heuristics for a Class of Meta-tasks on Heterogeneous Computing Systems”, In 8th IEEE Heterogeneous Computing Workshop (HCW’99), 1999, pp. 15-29.

[15]M.R. Garey and D.S. Johnson. “Computers and Intractability– A Guide to the Theory of NP Completeness.”W.H. Freeman and Co., 1979.

[16]Y. Zhu, A Survey on Grid Scheduling Systems, Department of Computer Science, Hong Kong University of science and Technology, 2003.

[17]Vivekanandan, K., Ramyachitra, D.: A Study on Scheduling in Grid Environment. International Journal on Computer Science and Engineering (IJSE) 3(2), 2011, pp. 940–950.

[18]Mr. Rakesh Kumar1, Navjot Kaur, “Job Scheduling in Grid Computers”, IEEE, 2006.

[19]A Novel Scheduling Model for Computational Grid Economy Systems, ¨Omer Ozan S¨onmez, Ko,c University, August 2005.

[20]P. Asadzadeh et al., "Global Grids and Software Toolkits: A Study of Four Grid Middleware Technologies," High-Performance Computing & mdash, Paradigm and Infrastructure, 2006.

[21]Ibrahim, S.; Hai Jin; Li Qi; Chunqiang Zeng, "Grid Maintenance: Challenges and Existing Models," 3rd International Conference Information and Communication Technologies: From Theory to Applications, ICTTA, April 2008. pp. 7-11.

[22]Load Balancing Approaches in Grid Computing Environment. International Journal of Computer Applications 72(12), June 2013, pp. 42-49.

[23]Franke, C., U. Schwiegelshohn, R. Yahyapour, Job Scheduling for Computational Grids, University of Dortmund, Technical Report 0206, 2006.

[24]Y. Zhu, A Survey on Grid Scheduling Systems, Department of Computer Science, Hong Kong University of science and Technology, 2003.

[25]A.Chandak, B. Sahoo & A. Turuk, Heuristic task allocation strategies for computational grid. International Journal advanced networking and applications, 5(2), 2011, pp. 804-810.

[26]Bharti Arora and Sami Anand. Article: Comparison of Efficient Job Scheduling Mechanisms Used in Grid Computing: A Review, International Journal of Computer Applications 70(11), Published by Foundation of Computer Science, New York, USA. May 2013. pp. 39-42.

[27]Kant Soni, V; Sharma, R.; Kumar Mishra, M.;, "An analysis of various job scheduling strategies in grid computing," 2nd International Conference on Signal Processing Systems (ICSPS), Vol.2, 5-7 July 2010, pp.V2-162-V2-166,

[28]K. Czajkowski, S. Fitzgerald, I. Foster, and C. Kesselman, Grid Information Services for Distributed Resource Sharing, in Proc. the 10th IEEE International Symposium on High- Performance Distributed Computing (HPDC-10), San Francisco, California, USA, August 2001, pp. 181-194.

[29]R. Wolski, N. T. Spring and J. Hayes, The Network Weather Service: A Distributed Resource Performance Forecasting Service for Metacomputing, in the J. of Future Generation Computing Systems, Vol. 15, No. 5-6, January 1999 pp. 757--768.

[30]F.D. Sacerdoti, M.J. Katz, M.L Massie and D.E. Culler, Wide area cluster monitoring with Ganglia, in Proc. of IEEE International Conference on Cluster Computing, Hong Kong, December 2003, pp.289 – 298.

[31]A. Chervenak, E. Deelman, I. Foster, L. Guy, W. Hoschek, A. Iamnitchi, C. Kesselman, P. Kunszt and M. Ripeanu, Giggle: A Framework for Constructing Scalable Replica Location Services, in Proc. of the ACM/IEEE Conference on Supercomputing, Baltimore, Maryland USA, November 2002, pp.1-17.

[32]P. K. Suri & Sunita Rani , Resource Management in Grid Computing: A Review Global Journal of Computer Science and Technology, Network, Web & Security, Vol. 13, Issue 17, Version 1.0, 2013

[33]D. Thilagavathi, Dr. Antony Selvadoss Thanamani, A Survey on Dynamic Job Scheduling in Grid Environment Based on Heuristic Algorithms, International Journal of Computer Trends and Technology, Vol. 3, Issue 4, 2012.

[34]Buyya, R., Venugopal, S., A gentle introduction to grid computing and technologies. CSI Communications 9, 9–19, July, 2005.

[35]Globus - http://www.globus.org

[36]Legion: A Worldwide Virtual Computer, http://legion.virginia.edu, accessed Jan. 2013.

[37]UNICORE-Distributed computing and data resources, http://www.unicore.eu, accessed Jan. 2013.

[38]M. Baker, R. Buyya, and D. Laforenza, Grids and Grid Technologies for Wide-Area Distributed Computing, International Journal of Software: Practice and Experience (SPE), Vol. 32, Issue 15, ,Wiley Press, USA, December 2002, pp. 1437-1466.

[39]James Frey, Todd Tannenbaum, Miron Livny, Ian Foster, Steven Tuecke, “Condor-G: A Computation Management Agent for Multi Institutional Grids,” Cluster Computing, Springer Netherlands, Vol. 5, no. 3, July 2002, pp. 237– 246.

[40]F.Berman et al. “New Grid Scheduling and Rescheduling Methods in the GRaDS Project,” International Journal of Parallel Programming, Springer Netherlands, Vol. 33, nos. 2-3, June 2005, pp. 209 – 229.

[41]NetSolve/GridSolve, http://icl.cs.utk.edu/netsolve, 2013.

[42]David Abramson, Rajkumar Buyya, and Jonathan Giddy, “A Computational Economy for Grid Computing and its Implementation in the Nimrod-G Resource Broker,” Future Generation Computer Systems (FGCS), 2002

[43]Goncalo Borges et al. “Sun Grid Engine, a New Scheduler for EGEE Middleware,” Iberian Grid Infrastructure Conference – IBERGRID, May 2007.

[44]Allen, G. et al. "The Grid Application Toolkit: Toward Generic and Easy Application Programming Interfaces for the Grid," Proceedings of the IEEE , Vol. 93, No.3, March 2005, pp.534-550

[45]EGI - European Grid Infrastructure, http://www.egi.eu/about/egi-inspire//, 2013

[46]Condor-High Throughput Computing, http://research.cs.wisc.edu/htcondor/, 2013.

[47]Akshay Luther, Rajkumar Buyya, Rajiv Ranjan & Srikumar Venugopal, Peer-to-Peer Grid Computing and a .NET-based Alchemi Framework , High Performance Computing: Paradigm and Infrastructure, Laurence Yang and Minyi Guo (editors), ISBN: 0-471-65471-X, Wiley Press, New Jersey, USA, June 2005.

[48]Henri Casanova, “Simgrid: a Toolkit for the Simulation of Application Scheduling,” Proceedings of the first IEEE/ACM International Symposium on Cluster Computing and the Grid (CCGRID), 2001.

[49]Rajkumar Buyya, Manzur Murshed, “GridSim: a toolkit for the modeling and simulation of distributed resource management and scheduling for grid computing,” Concurrency and Computation :Practice and Experience, 14, 2002, pp. 1175 – 1220.

[50]David G.Cameron, Ruben Carvajal-Schaffino, A.Paul Millar, Caitriana Nicholson, Kurt Stockinger, Floriano Zini, “Evaluating Scheduling and Replica Optimisation Strategies in OptorSim,” International Conference on Grid Computing, Proceedings of the 4th International Workshop on Grid Computing, 2003, page 52.

[51]Atsuko Takefusa, Satoshi Matsuoka, Kento Aida, Hidemoto Nakada, Umpei Nagashima, “Overview of a Performance Evaluation System for Global Computing Scheduling Algorithms,” Proceedings of the 8th IEEE International Symposium on High Performance Distributed Computing, 1999, page 11.

[52]Guttromson, R.T.; Chassin, D.P.; Widergren, S.E., Residential energy resource models for distribution feeder simulation, IEEE 2003 Power Engineering Society General Meeting, Vol. 1, 13–17 July 2003

[53]Cactus, http://cactuscode.org, 2013.

[54]J. M. Schopf. A general architecture for scheduling on the grid, 2002. Special issue of JPDC on Grid Computing.

[55]Ramin Yahyapour. Grid scheduling architecture, 2002. http://www-ds.e-technik.unidortmund. de/.

[56]Sanjoy Baruah, Shelby Funk, and Joel Goossens. Robustness results concerning EDF scheduling upon uniform multiprocessors. IEEE Transactions on Computers, 52(9), 2003, pp. 1185-1195.

[57]M. Dertouzos and A. K. Mok. Multiprocessor scheduling in a hard real-time environment. IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, 15(12), 1989, pp. 1497-1506.

[58]Kwang S. Hong and Joseph Y.-T. Leung. On-line scheduling of real-time tasks. IEEE Transactions on Computers, 41(10), 1992, pp. 1326-1331.

[59]Bharti Arora and Sami Anand. Article: Comparison of Efficient Job Scheduling Mechanisms Used in Grid Computing: A Review. International Journal of Computer Applications 70(11), May 2013. Published by Foundation of Computer Science, New York, USA, pp. 39-42.

[60]Task Scheduling Heuristic in Grid Computing, International Journal of Computer Applications and Technology. Vol. 1, Issue 2, 2012, pp. 49-52.

[61]A. Abraham, R. Buyya and B. Nath, Nature's Heuristics for Scheduling Jobs on Computational Grids, in Proc. of 8th IEEE International Conference on Advanced Computing and Communications (ADCOM 2000), Cochin, India, December 2000, pp. 45-52.

[62]T. Casavant, and J. Kuhl, A Taxonomy of Scheduling in General-purpose Distributed Computing Systems, in IEEE Trans. on Software Engineering Vol. 14, No.2, February 1988, pp. 141-154.

[63]A. Andrieux, D. Berry, J. Garibaldi, S. Jarvis, J. MacLaren, D. Ouelhadj and D. Snelling, Open Issues in Grid Scheduling, Official Technical Report of the Open Issues in Grid Scheduling Workshop, Edinburgh, UK, October 2003.

[64]R. Sharma, V. K. Soni, M. K. Mishra, P. Bhuyan, U. C. Dey An Agent Based Dynamic Resource Scheduling Model with FCFS-Job Grouping Strategy in Grid Computing, ICCGCS-2010.

[65]New heuristics for flow shop problem to minimize makespan, D Bai and L Tang, Journal of the operational research society, 2010 61, pp. 1032-1040

[66]V Vasudevan and R Vijayalakshmi. Article: Heuristic Algorithm for Balancing Load in Grid Task Scheduling. International Journal of Computer Applications 67(15), Published by Foundation of Computer Science, New York, USA, April 2013, pp. 38-41.

[67]Li Wenzheng; Zhang Wenyue, "An Improved Scheduling Algorithm for Grid Tasks," International Symposium on Intelligent Ubiquitous Computing and Education, 15-16 May 2009, pp.9-12,

[68]Sofia K. Dimitriadou, Helen D. Karatza, “Multi- Site Allocation Policies on a Grid and Local Level”, Electronic Notes in Theoretical Computer Science 261 , 2010, pp. 163–179.

[69]Li-Ya Tseng, Yeh-Hao Chin, Shu-Ching Wang, ‘A minimized makespan scheduler with multiple factors for Grid computing systems”, Expert Systems with Applications 36, 2009, pp. 11118-11130.

[70]Syed Muhammad Ahsan. ―A framework for QoS computation in web service and technology selection computer standards & Interfaces. 2006, 28(6),p.714-720

[71]Run-ze Wu; Ming-shan Wu; Xiang Mi; Qi An, "Task Scheduling Algorithm Based on Triangle Module in Grid Computing," 8th International Conference on Wireless Communications, Networking and Mobile Computing (WiCOM), 21-23 Sept. 2012.pp.1-4,

[72]Ding Ding; Siwei Luo; Lihua Ai; Yidong Li, "A User Preference Driven Approach for Multi-QoS Constrained Task Scheduling in Grid," 13th International Conference on Parallel and Distributed Computing, Applications and Technologies (PDCAT), 14-16 Dec. 2012, pp. 493-498.

[73]R. Buyya, D. Abramson, J. Giddy, and H. Stockinger. Economic Models for Resource Management and Scheduling in Grid Computing. The Journal of Concurrency and Computation, 14, 2002, pp. 1507-1542.

[74]Caramia, Massimiliano and Giordani, Stefano,"An Economic Model for Resource Allocation in Grid Computing", Operations Research, Vol. 59, No. 4, 2011, pp. 956-972.

[75]Baghban, H.; Hashemi, M., "A non-cooperative bargaining model for grid resource allocation," Humanities, Science and Engineering (CHUSER), 2011 IEEE Colloquium on, 5-6 Dec. 2011, pp.255-260.

[76]Yousif, A.; Abdullah, A.H.; Bashir, M.B., "Evolution and new architecture for bidding based grid resource selection," National Postgraduate Conference (NPC), 19-20 Sept. 2011, pp.1-5.

[77]Cendron, M.M.; Westphall, C.B., "A Price-Based Task Scheduling for Grid Computing," Seventh International Conference on Networking,. ICN 2008, 13-18 April 2008, pp.762-766.

[78]Ni L.M. Zhiwei Xu Lijuan Xiao, Yanmin Zhu. Incentive based Scheduling for Market Like Computational Grids. IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems, 19, 2008, pp. 903-913.

[79]Li Mingbiao; Li Jian; Xie Shengli, "Posted Price Model Based on GRS and Its Optimization Using in Grid Resource Allocation," International Conference on Wireless Communications, Networking and Mobile Computing, WiCom 21-25 Sept. 2007, pp.3172-3175.

[80]Market-based Resource Allocation in Grids Pourebrahimi, B.; Bertels, K.; Kandru, G. M.; Vassiliadis, S., "Market-Based Resource Allocation in Grids," Second IEEE International Conference on e-Science and Grid Computing, e-Science '06, Dec. 2006.

[81]Preetam Ghosh, Nirmalya Roy, Sajal K. Das, Kalyan Basu, A pricing strategy for job allocation in mobile grids using a non-cooperative bargaining theory framework, Journal of Parallel and Distributed Computing, Volume 65, Issue 11, November 2005, pp. 1366-1383.

[82]Bansal, S.; Hota, C., "Goodwill based scheduling algorithm for economy grid," IEEE 3rd International on Advance Computing Conference (IACC), 22-23 Feb. 2013, pp.56-60.

[83]Fard, H.M.; Deldari, H., "An Economic Approach for Scheduling Dependent Tasks in Grid Computing," 11th IEEE International Conference on Computational Science and Engineering Workshops, CSEWORKSHOPS '08m, 16-18 July 2008, pp.71-76.

[84]Juan Chen, "Economic Grid Resource Scheduling Based on Utility Optimization," 2010 Third International Symposium on Intelligent Information Technology and Security Informatics (IITSI), 2-4 April 2010, pp.522-525.

[85]Depoorter, W.; Van den Bossche, R.; Vanmechelen, K.; Broeckhove, J., "Evaluating the Divisible Load Assumption in the Context of Economic Grid Scheduling with Deadline-Based QoS guarantees," 9th IEEE/ACM International Symposium on Cluster Computing and the Grid, 2009. CCGRID '09, 18-21 May 2009, pp.452-459.

[86]A review of population based meta-heuristics algortihms, Zahra Beheshti, Siti Mariyam Hj. Shamsuddin Int. J. Advance. Soft Comput. Appl., Vol. 5, No. 1, March 2013.

[87]Zhihui Du, Man Wang, Yinong Chen, Yin Ye, Xudong Chai, The Triangular Pyramid Scheduling Model and algorithm for PDES in Grid, Simulation Modelling Practice and Theory, Vol. 17, Issue 10, November 2009, pp. 1678-1689.

[88]Jiayi Zhou, Kun-Ming Yu, Chih-Hsun Chou, Li-An Yang, Zhi-Jie Luo,A Dynamic Resource Broker and Fuzzy Logic Based Scheduling Algorithm in Grid Environment, Adaptive and Natural Computing Algorithms, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Vol. 4431, 2007, pp 604-613.

[89]Jingbo Yuan; Shunli Ding; Cuirong Wang, "Tasks Scheduling Based on Neural Networks in Grid," Third International Conference on Natural Computation, ICNC 2007, Vol. 3, 24-27 Aug. 2007, pp.372-376.

[90]Teo, Y. M.; Wang, X.; Gozali, J. P., "A compensation-based scheduling scheme for grid computing," Seventh International Conference on High Performance Computing and Grid in Asia Pacific Region, 2004. Proceedings, 20-22 July 2004, pp.334-342.

[91]Glover F., (1986). Future paths for integer programming and links to artficial intelligence, Computers and Operations Research, 13,1986, pp. 533-549.

[92]Laporte, G., Osman, I. H., “Routing problems: A bibliography”, Annals Operations Research, Vol. 61, 1995, pp. 227-262.

[93]Yang Gao, Hongqiang Rong, Joshua Zhexue Huang, Adaptive grid job scheduling with genetic algorithms, Future Generation Computer Systems, Volume 21, Issue 1, 1 January 2005, Pages 151-161

[94]Xhafa, F.; Alba, E.; Dorronsoro, B., "Efficient Batch Job Scheduling in Grids using Cellular Memetic Algorithms," IEEE International on Parallel and Distributed Processing Symposium, IPDPS 2007, 26-30 March 2007, pp.1-8.

[95]Joanna Kolodziej ,Fatos Xhafa, Lukasz Kolanko , "Hierarchic Genetic Scheduler Of Independent Jobs In Computational Grid Environment", published in Proceedings 23rd European Conference on Modelling and Simulation, ECMS 2009, Madrid, spain.

[96]Dudy Lim, Yew-Soon Ong, Yaochu Jin, Bernhard Sendhoff, Bu-Sung Lee, Efficient Hierarchical Parallel Genetic Algorithms using Grid computing, Future Generation Computer Systems, Vol. 23, Issue 4, May 2007, pp. 658-670.

[97]C. Blum and A. Roli. Metaheuristics in combinatorial optimization: Overview and conceptual comparison. ACM Computing Surveys, 35(3), 2003, pp. 268–308.

[98]Iztok Fister Jr., Xin-She Yang, Iztok Fister, Janez Brest, Duˇsan Fister, A Brief Review of Nature-Inspired Algorithms for Optimization, 2013.

[99]Mobini, M.H.; Entezari-Maleki, R.; Movaghar, A., "Biogeography-based optimization of makespan and reliability in grid computing systems," 4th International Congress on Ultra Modern Telecommunications and Control Systems and Workshops (ICUMT), 3-5 Oct. 2012, pp.336-342.

[100]Pooranian Z, Shojafar M, Javadi B, Independent task scheduling in grid computing based on queen bee algorithm. IAES Int J Artif Intell 1(4), 2012, pp. 171–181.

[101]Seyyed Mohsen Hashemi, Ali Hanani, Solving the Scheduling Problem in Computational Grid using Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm, Advances in Computer Science: an International Journal, 2013.

[102]Maryam Rabiee and Hedieh Sajedi. Article: Job Scheduling in Grid Computing with Cuckoo Optimization Algorithm. International Journal of Computer Applications, Published by Foundation of Computer Science, New York, USA, 62(16), Jan. 2013,pp. 38-44.

[103]Pooranian Z, Harounabadi A, Shojafar M, Hedayat N, New hybrid algorithm for task scheduling in grid computing to decrease missed task. In: World academy of science, engineering and technology, Vol. 55, 2011, pp. 5–9.

[104]Fidanova, S., "Simulated Annealing for Grid Scheduling Problem," International Symposium on Modern Computing, JVA '06. IEEE John Vincent Atanasoff, 3-6 Oct. 2006, pp.41-45.

[105]Fatemeh Heydariand Hadi Shahriar Shahhoseini, Dynamic and Adaptive Load Balancing using Harmony Search in Grid Computing, IJCSNS International Journal of Computer Science and Network Security, Vol.12 No.9, September 2012.

[106]Fatos Xhafa, Javier Carretero, Bernabé Dorronsoro,Enrique Alba, A Tabu Search Algorithm for Scheduling Independent Jobs in Computational Grids, Vol. 28, No. 2, 2009, pp. 237–250.

[107]Qingjiang Wang; Yun Gao; Peishun Liu, "Hill Climbing-Based Decentralized Job Scheduling on Computational Grids," First International Multi-Symposiums on Computer and Computational Sciences, IMSCCS '06, Vol.1, 20-24 June 2006, pp.705-708.

[108]Talbi, E.G.: A Taxonomy of Hybrid Meta-heuristics. J. Heuristics 8(5), 2002, pp. 541–564.

[109]Meta-heuristics for Grid Scheduling Problems, Fatos Xhafa and Ajith Abraham, Metaheuristics for Scheduling in Distributed Computing Environments Studies in Computational Intelligence Volume 146, 2008, pp. 1-37.

[110]Zahra Pooranian, Mohammad Shojafar , Reza Tavoli, MukeshSinghal, Ajith Abraham "A Hybrid Metaheuristic Algorithm for Job Scheduling on Computational Grids", Informatica 37, 2013, pp.-157-164.

[111]Hamid salehi, Reza Boostani, Asou Aminnezhad, Task scheduling Poblem in Grid Networks by Combination of Genetic Algorithms and Gravity Algorithms, International Research Journal of Applied and Basic Sciences, Vol, 4 (5), pp. 1287-1296.

[112]Uma B. Gurav and L.D. Netak, Hybrid Genetic Algorithm Based Task Scheduling in Heterogeneous Grid, published in Proceedings of SPIT-IEEE Colloquium and International Conference, Mumbai, India, Vol. 5, 2012, pp. 37-41.

[113]Farzaneh Fatemipour, Farnoush Fatemipour, Scheduling Scientific Workflows using Imperialist Competitive Algorithm, International Conference on Industrial and Intelligent Information (ICIII 2012) IPCSIT, Vol.31, IACSIT Press, Singapore, 2012.

[114]C.Kalpana, U.Karthick Kumar, R.Gogulan, "A Randomized Load Balancing Algorithm in grid using Max-Min PSO Algorithm", International Journal of Research in Computer Science, 2 (3), April 2012, pp. 17-23.

[115]Goswami, R.; Ghosh, T.K.; Barman, S., "Local search based approach in grid scheduling using Simulated Annealing," 2nd International Conference on Computer and Communication Technology (ICCCT), 15-17 Sept. 2011, pp.340-345.

[116]Liang-Teh Lee; Chin-Hsiian Liang; Hung-Yuan Chang, "An Adaptive Task Scheduling System for Grid Computing," The Sixth IEEE International Conference on Computer and Information Technology, CIT '06., Sept. 2006.

[117]Ahuva W. Mu’alem and Dror G. Feitelson, “Utilization, Predictability, Workloads, and User Runtime Estimates in Scheduling the IBM SP2 with Backfilling”. IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems, 12:(6), 2001, pp. 529-543.

[118]Armstrong, R.; Hensgen, D.; Kidd, T., "The relative performance of various mapping algorithms is independent of sizable variances in run-time predictions," Heterogeneous Computing Workshop (HCW 98) Proceedings. Seventh, 30 Mar. 1998, pp.79-87.

[119]Jing Wang; Gongqing Wu; Bin Zhang; Xuegang Hu, "A Heuristic Algorithm for Scheduling on Grid Computing Environment," ChinaGrid Annual Conference (ChinaGrid), Seventh , 20-23 Sept. 2012, pp.36-42

[120]George Amalarethinam. D.I, Vaaheedha Kfatheen .S, "Max-min Average Algorithm for Scheduling Tasks in Grid Computing Systems", George Amalarethinam. D.I et al, / (IJCSIT) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Technologies, Vol. 3 (2), 2012, pp. 3659-3663.

[121]Fahd Alharbi, "Simple Scheduling Algorithm with Load Balancing for Grid Computing", Asian Transactions on Computers (ATC),Vol. 02, Issue 02, May, 2012.

[122]Syed Nasir Mehmood Shah, Ahmad Kamil Bin Mahmood, Alan Oxley, Dynamic Multilevel Hybrid Scheduling Algorithms for Grid Computing, Procedia Computer Science, Vol. 4, 2011, pp. 402-411.

[123]T. Kokilavani, Dr. D.I. George Amalarethinam, "Load Balanced Min-Min Algorithm for Static Meta-Task Scheduling in Grid Computing",International Journal of Computer Applications, Vol. 20, No.2, April 2011.

[124]D. Doreen Hephzibah Miriam K. S. Easwarakumar, "A Double Min Min Algorithm for Task Metascheduler on Hypercubic P2P Grid Systems", IJCSI, Published in Vol. 7, Issue 4, No 5, July 2010, pp. 8-18.

[125]Kamalam.G.K and Murali Bhaskaran.V, A New Heuristic Approach: Min-mean Algorithm For Scheduling Meta-Tasks On Heterogeneous Computing Systems, IJCSNS International Journal of Computer Science and Network Security, Vol.10 No.1, Jan. 2010.

[126]Syed Nasir Mehmood Shah, Ahmad Kamil Bin Mahmood and Alan Oxley, Modified Least Cost Method for Grid Resource Allocation, International Conference on Cyber-Enabled Distributed Computing and Knowledge Discovery, 2010.

[127]Ang Li; Nianming Yao; Peiyu Hong, "A cost and time balancing algorithm for scheduling parallel tasks on Computing Grid," International Conference on Computer, Mechatronics, Control and Electronic Engineering (CMCE), Vol.1, 24-26 Aug. 2010, pp.185-188.

[128]Guoqi Yang, Yanming Shen, Keqiu Li, Wenyu Qu, A Comprehensive Task Scheduling Algorithm in Grid, The Fifth Annual ChinaGrid Conference, 2010.

[129]Li Wenzheng; Zhang Wenyue, "An Improved Scheduling Algorithm for Grid Tasks," International Symposium on Intelligent Ubiquitous Computing and Education, 15-16 May 2009, pp.9-12.

[130]Quan Liu; Yeqing Liao, "Grouping-Based Fine-Grained Job Scheduling in Grid Computing," First International Workshop on Education Technology and Computer Science, ETCS '09, Vol.1, 7-8 March 2009, pp.556-559.

[131]Hesam Izakian, Ajith Abraham, Senior Member, IEEE, Václav Snášel, Comparison of Heuristics for Scheduling Independent Tasks on Heterogeneous Distributed Environments, 2009.

[132]Saeed Parsa and Reza Entezari-Maleki,"RASA: A New Task Scheduling Algorithm in Grid Environment",World Applied Sciences Journal 7 (Special Issue of Computer & IT), 2009, pp. 152-160.

[133]Ehsan Ullah Munir, Jianzhong Li, Shengfei Shi, Zhaonian Zou and Donghua Yang.,MaxStd: A Task Scheduling Heuristic for Heterogeneous Computing Environment. Information Technology Journal, 7 (4), 2008, pp. 679-683.

[134]Diana Moise, Izabela Moise , Florin Pop , Valentin Cristea, "Resource CoAllocation for Scheduling Tasks with Dependencies, in Grid", International Workshop on High Performance in Grid Middleware (HiPerGRID 2008), Bucharest, Romania, 2008.

[135]Wu, H.; Chong-Yen Lee; Wuu-Yee Chen; Tsang-Yean Lee, "A Job Schedule Model Based on Grid Environment," First International Conference on Complex, Intelligent and Software Intensive Systems, CISIS, 10-12 April 2007, pp.43-52.

[136]Etminani .K, and Naghibzadeh. M, "A Min-min Max-min Selective Algorithm for Grid Task Scheduling," The Third IEEE/IFIP International Conference on Internet, Uzbekistan, 2007.

[137]Ng Wai Keat, Ang Tan Fong, Ling Teck Chaw, Liew Chee Sun, " Scheduling Framework for Bandwidth- Aware Job Grouping", Malaysian Journal of Computer Science, Vol. 19(2), 2006.

[138]Braun, T.D. et al. "A comparison study of static mapping heuristics for a class of meta-tasks on heterogeneous computing systems," Heterogeneous Computing Workshop, (HCW '99) Proceedings. Eighth , pp.15-29, 1999.

[139]A. Abraham, R. Buyya, and B. Nath, “Nature’s heuristics for scheduling jobs on computational grids”, In: The 8th IEEE International Conference on Advanced Computing and Communications, India, 2000.

[140]Casanova, H.; Legrand, A.; Zagorodnov, D.; Berman, F., "Heuristics for scheduling parameter sweep applications in grid environments," Heterogeneous Computing Workshop, (HCW 2000) Proceedings. 9th , 2000, pp.349-363.

[141]M. Macheswaran, S. Ali, H. J. Siegel, D. Hensgen and R. F. Freund, “Dynamic Mapping of a Class of Independent Tasks onto Heterogeneous Computing Systems,” Journal of Parallel Distributed Computing, Vol. 59, No. 2, 1999, pp. 107-131.

[142]V.S. Anil Kumar, Madhav V. Marathe, Srinivasan Parthasarathy, Aravind Srinivasan, Minimum Weighted Completion Time, ,1999 .

[143]Joanna Kolodziej, Fatos Xhafa, “Meeting Security and User Behavior Requirements in Grid Scheduling”, Simulation Modeling Practices and Theory, 2010.

[144]Amit Agarwal and Padam Kumar "Multidimensional Qos Oriented Task Scheduling In Grid Environments", International Journal of Grid Computing & Applications (IJGCA) Vol.2, No.1, March 2011.

[145]Juefu Liu; Gang Li, "An improved MIN-MIN grid tasks scheduling algorithm based on QoS constraints," International Conference on Optics Photonics and Energy Engineering (OPEE), Vol.1, 10-11 May 2010, pp.281-283.

[146]Kunfang SONG, Shufen RUAN, Minghua JIANG, "A Flexible Grid Task Scheduling Algorithm Based on QoS Similarity", Journal of Convergence Information Technology Vol. 5, No. 7, Sept. 2010.

[147]Sameer Singh Chauhan and R.C. Joshi, "Multiple QoS Guided Heuristic for Independent Task Scheduling in Grid", Information and Communication Technologies Communications in Computer and Information Science, Vol. 101, 2010, pp. 136-141.

[148]Nawfal A. Mehdi, Ali Mamat, Hamidah Ibrahim, Shamala A/P K, "Multiphase Scalable Grid Scheduler Based on Multi-QoS Using Min-Min Heuristic", (IJACSA) International Journal of Advanced Computer Science and Applications, Vol. 1, No. 3, Sept. 2010.

[149]Chauhan, S.S.; Joshi, R.C., "A heuristic for QoS based independent task scheduling in Grid environment," International Conference on Industrial and Information Systems (ICIIS), July 29-Aug. 1, 2010, pp.102-106.

[150]Sameer Singh Chauhan, R.C. Joshi, QoS Guided Heuristic Algorithms for Grid Task Scheduling, , International Journal of Computer Applications, Vol. 2, No.9, June 2010.

[151]Singh. M and Suri. P.K, QPS- A QoS Based Predictive Max-Min, Min-Min Switcher Algorithm for Job Scheduling in a Grid, Information Technology Journal, Vol. 7, Issue: 8, 2008, pp. 1176-1181.

[152]Baraglia, R.; Ferrini, R.; Tonellotto, N.; Ricci, L.; Yahyapour, R., "QoS-constrained List Scheduling Heuristics for Parallel Applications on Grids," 16th Euromicro Conference on Parallel, Distributed and Network-Based Processing,. PDP, 13-15 Feb. 2008, pp.379-383.

[153]Khanli, L.M.; Analoui, M., "Grid_JQA: A QoS Guided Scheduling Algorithm for Grid Computing," Sixth International Symposium on Parallel and Distributed Computing,. ISPDC '07. , 5-8 July 2007, pp. 34.

[154]Chunlin, Li; Meilai, Feng; Layuan, Li, "Multiple QoS modeling and algorithm in computational grid," Systems Engineering and Electronics, Journal of , Vol. 18, No.2, June 2007, pp.412-417.

[155]Ehsan Ullah Munir, Jianzhong Li and Shengfei Shi, QoS Sufferage Heuristic for Independent Task Scheduling in Grid. Information Technology Journal, 6, 2007, pp. 1166-1170.

[156]Yin-Yun Shen; Xiao-Ping Li; Qian Wang; Ying-Chun Yuan, "A Hybrid QoS-Based Algorithm for Independent Tasks Scheduling in Grid," International Conference on Machine Learning and Cybernetics, 2006, 13-16 Aug. 2006, pp.4511-4515.

[157]Fang Dong; Junzhou Luo; Lisha Gao; Liang Ge, "A Grid Task Scheduling Algorithm Based on QoS Priority Grouping," Fifth International Conference on Grid and Cooperative Computing, GC, Oct. 2006, pp.58-61.

[158]J. Yu, R. Buyya and C.K. Tham, “QoS-based Scheduling of Workflow Applications on Service Grids”, Technical Report, GRIDS-TR-2005-8, Grid Computing and Distributed Systems Laboratory, University of Melbourne, Australia, June 9, 2005.

[159]XiaoShan He,Xianhe Sun and Gergor von Laszewski. ―QoS guided Min-Min heuristic for grid task scheduling. Journal of Computer Science and Technology, 18(4), 2003, pp.442-451.

[160]Abdulal, W.; Al Jadaan, O.; Jabas, A.; Ramachandram, S.; Kaiiali, M.; Rao, C. R., "Rank-Based Genetic Algorithm with Limited Iteration for Grid Scheduling," First International Conference on Computational Intelligence, Communication Systems and Networks, CICSYN '09, 23-25 July 2009, pp.29-34.

[161]Shahista Navaz, Uzma Ansari- An Evolutionary Algorithm in Grid Scheduling by multi-objective Optimization using variants of NSGA - published at: "International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications (IJSRP), Vol. 2, Issue 9, Sept. 2012 Edition"

[162]Salimi, R.; Motameni, H.; Omranpour, H., "Task scheduling with Load balancing for computational grid using NSGA II with fuzzy mutation," 2nd IEEE International Conference on Parallel Distributed and Grid Computing (PDGC), 6-8 Dec. 2012, pp.79-84.

[163]Chinmoy Kar, Vineet Kumar Rakesh, Tapas Samanta and Sreeparna Banerjee, "A New Approach to Grid Scheduling using Random Weighted Genetic Algorithm with Fault Tolerance Strategy", International Journal of Computer Applications, Published by Foundation of Computer Science, New York, USA, 48(23): June 2012, pp. 42-47.

[164]Joanna Kołodziej,, Joanna Kołodziej,, Fatos Xhafa, Genetic Algorithms for Energy-aware Scheduling in Computational Grid.

[165]M. Camelo, Y. Donoso, and H. Castro, “MAGS—an approach using multi-objective evolutionary algorithms for grid task scheduling,” International Journal of Applied Mathematics and Informatics, Vol. 5, No. 2, 2011.

[166]Hai ZhuYuping Wang and Lei Fan and Xiaoli Wang, Grid Independent Task Scheduling Multi-Objective Optimization Model and Genetic Algorithm, 2010.

[167]Benedict, S., Rejitha, R.S., Vasudevan, V., An Evolutionary Hybrid Scheduling Algorithm for Computational Grids. Journal of Advanced Computational Intelligence and Intelligent Informatics 12(5), 2008, pp. 479–484.

[168]Grosan, C., Abraham, A., Helvik, B.: Multi-objective Evolutionary Algorithms for Scheduling Jobs on Computational Grids. In: Guimaraes, N., Isaias, P. (eds.) International Conference on Applied Computing, Salamanca, Spain, 2007, pp. 459–463.

[169]S. Selvi, D. Manimegalai, and A. Suruliandi, "Efficient job scheduling on computational grid with differential evolution algorithm, " International Journal of Computer Theory and Engineering, Vol. 3, 2011, pp. 277-281.

[170]Wu Yang; Yuanshu Sun, "An Improved Shuffled Frog Leaping Algorithm for Grid Task Scheduling," International Conference on Network Computing and Information Security (NCIS), Vol.1, 14-15 May 2011 pp.342-346.

[171]Zhou Wei; Bu Yan-ping; Zhou Ye-qing, "The application of an improved cultural algorithm in grid computing," Control and Decision Conference (CCDC), 2013 25th Chinese , 25-27 May 2013, pp.4565-4570

[172]Pooranian Z, Shojafar M, Abawajy JH, Singhal M, GLOA: a new job scheduling algorithm for grid computing. Int J Artif Intell Interact Multimed 2(1), 2013, pp. 59–64.

[173]Rajni, Inderveer Chana, Bacterial foraging based hyper-heuristic for resource scheduling in grid computing, Future Generation Computer Systems, Vol. 29, Issue 3, March 2013, pp. 751-762.

[174]Adil Yousif, Abdul Hanan Abdullah, Sulaiman Mohd Nor, Adil Ali Abdelaziz, Scheduling Jobs on Grid Computing using Firefly algorithm, Journal of Theoretical and Applied Information Technology, Vol. 33 No.2, 30th Nov. 2011, pp. 155-164.

[175]Javid Taheri, Young Choon Lee, Albert Y. Zomaya, Howard Jay Siegel, A Bee Colony based optimization approach for simultaneous job scheduling and data replication in grid environments, Computers & Operations Research, Vol. 40, Issue 6, June 2013, pp. 1564-1578.

[176]Saeed Farzi, "Efficient job scheduling in grid computing with modified artificial fish swarm algorithm," International Journal of computer theory and engineering, Vol. 1, No. 1, April 2009.

[177]Nikkhah, M.; Rahmani, A.M.; Yektaie, M.H.; Nikkhah, M., "A Novel Fault-tolerant Particle Swarm Optimization Scheduler for Scheduling Independent Task in Grid Computing Environment," Eighth IEEE/ACIS International Conference on Computer and Information Science, ICIS, 1-3 June 2009, pp.489-493.

[178]S. Lorpunmanee, M. N. Sap, A. H. Abdullah, and C. Chompoo-inwai, "An ant colony optimization for dynamic job scheduling in grid environment," Proceedings of World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, 2007, pp.314-321.

[179]Zahra Pooranian, Mohammad Shojafar, Bahman Javadi, Ajith Abraham, Using Imperialist Competition Algorithm for Independent Task Scheduling in Grid Computing, Journal of Intelligent and Fuzzy Systems, 2013.

[180]Klusacek, D., Matyska, L., Rudova, H.: Local Search for Grid Scheduling. In: Doctoral Consortium at the International Conference on Automated Planning and Scheduling (ICAPS 2007), Providence, RI, USA, 2007.

[181]J. Blythe, S. Jain, E. Deelman, Y. Gil, K. Vahi, A. Mandal, and K. Kennedy. 2005. Task scheduling strategies for workflow-based applications in grids. In Proceedings of the Fifth IEEE International Symposium on Cluster Computing and the Grid (CCGrid'05) - Vol. 2. IEEE Computer Society, Washington, DC, USA, pp. 759-767.

[182]Sara Kardani-Moghaddam, Farzad Khodadadi, Reza Entezari-Maleki, Ali Movaghar, A Hybrid Genetic Algorithm and Variable Neighborhood Search for Task Scheduling Problem in Grid Environment, Procedia Engineering, Vol. 29, 2012, pp. 3808-3814

[183]Attraction Search algorithm (HYGAGA) to Solve Grid Task Scheduling Problem, International Conference on Soft Computing and its Applications(ICSCA'2012) Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia), Aug. 25-26, 2012, pp. 158-162.

[184]Z. Pooranian, A. Harounabadi, M. Shojafar, J. Mirabedini, “Hybrid PSO for Independent Task scheduling in Grid Computing to Decrease Makespan,” in Proc. of International Conference on Future Information Technology,IPCSIT'11, Vol. 13, 2011, pp. 435-439.

[185]Kolodziej, J.; Xhafa, F., "A Game-Theoretic and Hybrid Genetic Meta-Heuristics Model for Security-Assured Scheduling of Independent Jobs in Computational Grids," Complex, Intelligent and Software Intensive Systems (CISIS), 2010 International Conference on , 15-18 Feb. 2010, pp. .93-100.

[186]Bhupinder Singh, Seema Bawa, HybridSGSA: SexualGA and Simulated Annealing based Hybrid Algorithm for Grid Scheduling, Global Journal of Computer Science and Technology, Vol. 10, No. 9, 2010.

[187]Xhafa, F., Gonzalez, J.A., Dahal, K.P., Abraham, A.: A GA(TS) hybrid algorithm for scheduling in computational grids. In: Hybrid Artificial Intelligent Systems, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 5572, 2009, pp. 285–292.

[188]Youchan Zhu; Xueying Guo, "Grid Dependent Tasks Scheduling Based on Hybrid Adaptive Genetic Algorithm," Intelligent Systems, 2009. GCIS '09. WRI Global Congress on , vol.2, no., , 19-21 May 2009, pp..35-38.

[189]Hao Tian, "A New Resource Management and Scheduling Model in Grid Computing Based on a Hybrid Genetic Algorithm," Computing, Communication, Control, and Management, 2008. CCCM '08. ISECS International Colloquium on, Vol.3, 3-4 Aug. 2008, pp.113-117.

[190]Kun-Ming Yu ,Zhi-Jie Luo , Chih-Hsun Chou , Cheng-Kwan Chen ,Jiayi Zhou,A Fuzzy Neural Network Based Scheduling Algorithm for Job Assignment on Computational Grids, First International Conference, NBiS 2007, Regensburg, Germany, 2007, pp.533-542.

[191]Wanneng Shu; Shijue Zheng; Li Gao; Xiong Wang, "An Hybrid Evaluative Algorithm Applied to Task Scheduling," Communications, Circuits and Systems Proceedings, 2006 International Conference on, Vol. 3, 25-28 June 2006, pp. 2070-2073.

[192]Shijue Zheng; Wanneng Shu; Li Gao, "Task Scheduling using Parallel Genetic Simulated Annealing Algorithm," IEEE International Conference on Service Operations and Logistics, and Informatics, SOLI '06, 21-23 June 2006, pp.46-50.

[193]Wei-Neng Chen; Jun Zhang, "An Ant Colony Optimization Approach to a Grid Workflow Scheduling Problem With Various QoS Requirements," IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, Part C: Applications and Reviews, , Vol. 39, No.1, Jan. 2009, pp.29-43.

[194]Shi Lei; Xu Hui-hui, "Grid resource scheduling algorithm based on QoS guided GA," IEEE International Symposium on IT in Medicine & Education, ITIME '09, Vol.1, 14-16 Aug. 2009, pp.1281-1285.

[195]Dalibor Klusacek and Hana Rudova. Improving QoS in computational Grids through schedule-based approach. In Scheduling and Planning Applications Workshop at the Eighteenth International Conference on Automated Plan-ning and Scheduling (ICAPS'08), Sydney, Australia, 2008.

[196]Klusacek, D., Matyska, L., Rudova, H.: Local Search for Deadline Driven Grid Scheduling. In: Third Doctoral Workshop on Mathematical and Engineering Methods in Computer Science (MEMICS 2007), 2007, pp. 74–81.

[197]Chunhua Hu; Min Wu; Guoping Liu; Wen Xie, "QoS Scheduling Algorithm Based on Hybrid Particle Swarm Optimization Strategy for Grid Workflow," Sixth International Conference on Grid and Cooperative Computing, GCC 2007, 16-18 Aug. 2007, pp.330-337.

[198]Mishra, M.K.; Sharma, R.; Kant Soni, V.; Parida, B.R.; Das, R.K., "A memory-aware dynamic job scheduling model in Grid computing," International Conference on Computer Design and Applications (ICCDA), Vol.1, 25-27 June 2010, pp. 545-549.

[199]Molaiy, Saeed; Effatparvar, Mehdi, "Scheduling in Grid Systems using Ant Colony Algorithm", I.J. Computer Network and Information Security, 2014, Vol. 6, Issue 2, Jan. 2014, pp. 16-22.

[200]Fotohi R, Effatparvar M., "A Cluster Based Job Scheduling Algorithm for Grid Computing. I.J. Information Technology and Computer Science, 2013, Vol. 5, No. 12, pp. 70-77.

[201]M. K. Mishra, P. Mohanty and G B Mund. , "A Time-Minimization Dynamic Job Grouping-based Scheduling in Grid Computing", International Journal of Computer Applications, Vol. 40, No. 16, February 2012. Published by Foundation of Computer Science, New York, USA, pp. 16-25.