International Journal of Engineering and Manufacturing (IJEM)

ISSN: 2305-3631 (Print)

ISSN: 2306-5982 (Online)

DOI: https://doi.org/10.5815/ijem

Website: https://www.mecs-press.org/ijem

Published By: MECS Press

Frequency: 6 issues per year

Number(s) Available: 71

(IJEM) in Google Scholar Citations / h5-index

IJEM is committed to bridge the theory and practice of engineering and manufacturing. From innovative ideas to specific algorithms and full system implementations, IJEM publishes original, peer-reviewed, and high quality articles in the areas of engineering and manufacturing. IJEM is a well-indexed scholarly journal and is indispensable reading and references for people working at the cutting edge of engineering and manufacturing applications.

 

IJEM has been abstracted or indexed by several world class databases: Google Scholar, Microsoft Academic Search, Baidu Wenku, Open Access Articles, Scirus, CNKI, CrossRef, JournalTOCs, etc..

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IJEM Vol. 14, No. 1, Feb. 2024

REGULAR PAPERS

A Hybrid Approach for Real-time Vehicle Monitoring System

By Pankaj Pratap Singh Shitala Prasad

DOI: https://doi.org/10.5815/ijem.2024.01.01, Pub. Date: 8 Feb. 2024

In today's modern era, with the significant increase in the number of vehicles on the roads, there is a pressing need for an advanced and efficient system to monitor them effectively. Such a system not only helps minimize the chances of any faults but also facilitates human intervention when required. Our proposed method focuses on detecting vehicles through background subtraction, which leverages the benefits of various techniques to create a comprehensive vehicle monitoring solution. In general, when it comes to surveillance and monitoring moving objects, the initial step involves detecting and tracking these objects. For vehicle segmentation, we employ background subtraction, a technique that distinguishes foreground objects from the background. To target the most prominent regions in video sequences, our method utilizes a combination of morphological techniques. The advancements in vision-related technologies have proven to be instrumental in object detection and image classification, making them valuable tools for monitoring moving vehicles. Methods based on moving object detection play a vital role in real-time extraction of vehicles from surveillance videos captured by street cameras. These methods also involve the removal of background information while filtering out noisy data. In our study, we employ background subtraction-based techniques that continuously update the background image to ensure efficient output. By adopting this approach, we enhance the overall performance of vehicle detection and monitoring.

[...] Read more.
Enhancing Fast Fourier Transform Algorithm for Keystroke Acoustic Emanation Denoising Strategy on Real-Time Scenario

By Suleiman Ahmad John Kolo Alhassan Shafii Muhammad Abdulhamid Suleiman Zubairu

DOI: https://doi.org/10.5815/ijem.2024.01.02, Pub. Date: 8 Feb. 2024

The use of virtual keyboards in mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets has become an essential tool for inputting information. The sound of keystrokes has been observed in previous studies to be recorded along with ambient noises, such as those produced by uncontrolled student noise, fans, doors and windows, moving cars, and similar sources. The presence of such noises negatively affects the quality of the keystrokes signal, which in turn affects keystroke analysis. The traditional FFT-based denoising methods are vital but they are often limited by their inability to adapt to the varying characteristics of real-world audio and noises. This paper proposes an enhanced Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) with an adaptive threshold technique that reduces ambient noises. The adaptive threshold technique is developed to identify frequency bins that contain noise and set their sizes to zero or attenuate them to reduce the noise. The paper evaluates the performance of the enhanced FFT with adaptive threshold on keystrokes recorded audio and validates it through extensive experimentation. The results show that the enhanced FFT outperforms the traditional FFT in terms of speed and the amount of noise removed from the recorded audio signal, indicating a significant improvement.

[...] Read more.
Generation of Images from Text Using AI

By Nimesh Yadav Aryan Sinha Mohit Jain Aman Agrawal Sofia Francis

DOI: https://doi.org/10.5815/ijem.2024.01.03, Pub. Date: 8 Feb. 2024

Reading the words can be confusing, and it may be hard to picture what is happening. There are some circumstances where words can be misunderstood. It's much simpler to recognize text if it's displayed as an image. The use of visuals is proven to increase viewership and retention.
Synthesizing realistic images automatically is a challenging undertaking, and even the most advanced artificial intelligence and machine learning algorithm has trouble meeting this standard. GANs (Generative Adversarial Networks) are just one example of a powerful neural network architecture that has shown promising results in recent years. Existing text-to-image methods can generate examples that generally reflect the meaning of the provided descriptions, but they often lack the necessary details and colorful object elements.
The primary objective of our research was to explore diverse architectural methodologies with the intention of facilitating the generation of visual representations from textual descriptions. By delving into this investigation, we aimed to discover and examine various approaches that could effectively support the creation of visuals that accurately depict the content and context provided within written narratives. Our aim was to unlock new possibilities in the realm of visual storytelling by establishing a strong connection between language and imagery through innovative architectural techniques.

[...] Read more.
Significant Difference in the Properties of Porcelain Insulator Produced through Slip and Press Cast Forming Techniques

By Ologunwa Temitope Peter Erhuanga Ebelechukwu Ayibuofu

DOI: https://doi.org/10.5815/ijem.2024.01.04, Pub. Date: 8 Feb. 2024

This paper investigates the effect of forming techniques on the mechanical and dielectric properties of porcelain insulators. Insulators are used in electrical equipment to separate conductors and prevent the flow of electrical charges. Slip casting is commonly used because it is cheaper and easier, but its inferior strength properties have been reported. However, other forming techniques like press casting, which can compact particle sizes by applying pressure, may result in better mechanical strength and dielectric properties. The study examined slip-casting and press-casting methods to determine which method produces better-quality electrical porcelain insulators. Using both techniques, locally available raw materials such as kaolin, feldspar, silica, and ball clay were processed before being used to create samples. The mechanical and dielectric strength of the electrical porcelain insulators produced through slip and press cast methods were analyzed using an independent t-test to compare the mean value between the two variables (Slip and press cast). The study found that slip casting produces insulators with slightly lower bulk density than press casting, but the difference is not significant enough to affect the insulators' mechanical and dielectric properties. The results showed no significant difference in bulk densities between the two forming techniques, implying that both methods are equally viable for producing shackle-type electrical insulators. These findings provide valuable insights for manufacturers, allowing them to select the most suitable forming technique based on their specific production needs and constraints.

[...] Read more.
AI-Based Smart Prediction of Liquid Flow System Using Machine Learning Approach

By Pijush Dutta Gour Gopal Jana Shobhandeb Paul Souvik Pal Sumanta Dey Arindam Sadhu

DOI: https://doi.org/10.5815/ijem.2024.01.05, Pub. Date: 8 Feb. 2024

Predicting the liquid flow rate in the process industry has proved to be a critical problem to solve. To develop a mathematical, in-depth of physics-based prognostics understanding is often required. However, in a complex process control system, sometimes proper knowledge of system behaviour is unavailable, in such cases, the complement model-based prognostics transform into a smart process control system with the help of Artificial Intelligence. In previous research a number of prognostic methods, based on classical intelligence techniques, such as artificial neural networks (ANNs), Fuzzy logic controller, Adaptive Fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) etc., utilized in a liquid flow process model to predict the effectiveness. Due to system complexity, Computational time &over fitting the performance of the AI has been limited. In this work we proposed three machine learning regression model: Random Forest (RF), decision Tree (DT) & linear Regression (LR) to predict the flow rate of a process control system. The effectiveness of the model is evaluated in terms of training time, RMSE, MAE & accuracy. Overall, this study suggested that the Decision Tree outperformed than other two models RF & LR by achieving the maximum accuracy, least RMSE & Computational time is 98.6%, 0.0859 & 0.115 Seconds respectively.

[...] Read more.
Machine Learning Approaches for Cancer Detection

By Ayush Sharma Sudhanshu Kulshrestha Sibi B Daniel

DOI: https://doi.org/10.5815/ijem.2018.02.05, Pub. Date: 8 Mar. 2018

Accurate prediction of cancer can play a crucial role in its treatment. The procedure of cancer detection is incumbent upon the doctor, which at times can be subjected to human error and therefore leading to erroneous decisions. Using machine learning techniques for the same can prove to be beneficial. Many classification algorithms such as Support Vector Machines (SVM) and Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) are proven to produce good classification accuracies. The following study models data sets for breast, liver, ovarian and prostate cancer using the aforementioned algorithms and compares them. The study covers data from condition of organs, which is called standard data and from gene expression data as well. This research has shown that SVM classifier can obtain better performance for classification in comparison to the ANN classifier.

[...] Read more.
Big Data in Cyber-Physical Systems, Digital Manufacturing and Industry 4.0

By Lidong Wang Guanghui Wang

DOI: https://doi.org/10.5815/ijem.2016.04.01, Pub. Date: 8 Jul. 2016

A cyber physical system (CPS) is a complex system that integrates computation, communication, and physical processes. Digital manufacturing is a method of using computers and related technologies to control an entire production process. Industry 4.0 can make manufacturing more efficient, flexible, and sustainable through communication and intelligence; therefore, it can increase the competitiveness. Key technologies such as the Internet of Things, cloud computing, machine-to-machine (M2M) communications, 3D printing, and Big Data have great impacts on Industry 4.0. Big Data analytics is very important for cyber-physical systems (CPSs), digital manufacturing, and Industry 4.0. This paper introduces technology progresses in CPS, digital manufacturing, and Industry 4.0. Some challenges and future research topics in these areas are also presented.

[...] Read more.
Towards the Development a Cost-effective Earthquake Monitoring System and Vibration Detector with SMS Notification Using IOT

By Shaina Delia G. Tomaneng Jubert Angelo P. Docdoc Susanne A. Hierl Patrick D. Cerna

DOI: https://doi.org/10.5815/ijem.2022.06.03, Pub. Date: 8 Dec. 2022

As one of the countries situated in the Pacific Ring of Fire, the Philippines suffers from an inexhaustible number of natural disasters every year. One of the most destructible ones is the occurrence of earthquakes. Because of the high damage that earthquakes incur, along with their inevitability and unpredictability, developing effective methods of earthquake damage mitigation as well as disaster preparedness is imperative to lessen the negative impacts it is capable of producing in communities. One efficient way of doing this is by implementing an earthquake early warning (EEW) system that is capable of sending message alerts to receivers to warn them in the event of a hazardous earthquake. With this objective, this study centers on creating an earthquake detector with SMS messaging to function as an EEW system with an added advantage of being low-cost to make it more accessible to the public. Using electronic components based on an Arduino Mega 2560 and a Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) module, the earthquake detector and its alert message system were created. A series of tests in different locations across Butuan City was then performed to assess the device’s accuracy in measuring different Intensity levels when subjected to surface vibrations. Comparative analysis showed that its recorded values. Corresponded with the values obtained from accelerometer-based mobile applications. In conclusion, the study was deemed functional in its ability to detect low and high surface vibrations, which proves that it is successful in detecting earthquake tremors and vibrations in the event of an earthquake.

[...] Read more.
Gas Leakage Detector and Monitoring System

By Nureni Asafe Yekini Adigun J. Oyeranmi Oloyede A. Olamide Akinade O. Abigael

DOI: https://doi.org/10.5815/ijem.2022.05.05, Pub. Date: 8 Oct. 2022

Leakage of gas is a major issue in the industrial sector, residential buildings, and gas-powered vehicles, one of the preventive methods to stop accidents associated with gas leakage is to install gas leakage detection devices. The focus of this work is to propose a device that can detect gas leakage and alert the owners to avert problems due to gas leakages. The system is based on a microcontroller that employs a gas sensor as well as a GSM module, an LCD display, and a buzzer. The system was designed for gas leakage monitoring and alerts with SMS via an Arduino microcontroller with a buzzer and an MQ2 gas sensor. The circuit contains a Microcontroller MQ2 gas sensor, buzzer, LCD display, and GSM module, when the sensor detects gas leakage it transmit the information to the Microcontroller while the microcontroller makes a decision and then forwarded a warning message to the user as SMS to a mobile phone for decision to be taken accordingly. The output of this research will be significant in averting problems associated with gas leakages now and in future. 

[...] Read more.
Reliability Analysis Techniques in Distribution System: A Comprehensive Review

By Prakash Kafle Manila Bhandari Lalit B. Rana

DOI: https://doi.org/10.5815/ijem.2022.02.02, Pub. Date: 8 Apr. 2022

Quality of electricity with continuity is the reliability of the power system which is inversely proportional with the duration of power supply interruption. It depends on some expected or unexpected faults/failures on the systems, speed of protecting systems, preventive maintenance, and motivation of technical staffs. The detailed study of the distribution system is more crucial as its reliability is the concern of utility’s fame, service, customers’ satisfactions and reflects to the overall revenue. The relevant articles from the various sources has been collected and analyzed different reliability indices with their significance. Also, to realize the methodology related with reliability analysis, a comparative study among its different components has been carried out and the best techniques for maintaining system reliability are suggested.

[...] Read more.
Deep Neural Network for Human Face Recognition

By Priya Gupta Nidhi Saxena Meetika Sharma Jagriti Tripathi

DOI: https://doi.org/10.5815/ijem.2018.01.06, Pub. Date: 8 Jan. 2018

Face recognition (FR), the process of identifying people through facial images, has numerous practical applications in the area of biometrics, information security, access control, law enforcement, smart cards and surveillance system. Convolutional Neural Networks (CovNets), a type of deep networks has been proved to be successful for FR. For real-time systems, some preprocessing steps like sampling needs to be done before using to CovNets. But then also complete images (all the pixel values) are passed as input to CovNets and all the steps (feature selection, feature extraction, training) are performed by the network. This is the reason that implementing CovNets are sometimes complex and time consuming. CovNets are at the nascent stage and the accuracies obtained are very high, so they have a long way to go. The paper proposes a new way of using a deep neural network (another type of deep network) for face recognition. In this approach, instead of providing raw pixel values as input, only the extracted facial features are provided. This lowers the complexity of while providing the accuracy of 97.05% on Yale faces dataset.

[...] Read more.
A Review on Stabilization of Soft Soils with Geopolymerization of Industrial Wastes

By Tadesse A. Wassie Gokhan Demir

DOI: https://doi.org/10.5815/ijem.2023.02.01, Pub. Date: 8 Apr. 2023

Geopolymers are inorganic aluminosilicate polymers that solidify into ceramic-like substances at tempera-tures close to ambient. The elements in silicate oxide (SiO2) and aluminum oxide (Al2O3) are essential for the hardening of geopolymers because they combine with other elements to create N-A-S-H formation, which gives the material its distinctive strength. Geopolymers based on industrial wastes are increasingly being used to stabilize soft soils. Fly ash, GGBS, metakaolin, glass powders, and others are a few of the industrial wastes that aid in synthesizing geopolymers. Several experimental studies were carried out to determine the mechanical strength, durability, and microstructure im-provement of soft soils stabilized with geopolymers. Some of the experiments include X-ray diffraction (XRD), scan-ning electron microscopy (SEM), unconfined compression testing (UCS), and durability testing. The main objective of this review was to assess the different types of binders, binder ratios, alkali activator types, alkali activator concentra-tions, and other parameters used in synthesizing geopolymers. The binder's proportion varies between 5% and 30% of the soil's dry weight. Researchers commonly use sodium silicate (Na2SiO3) and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution for the alkali activator. Since the unconfined compression test is one of the quickest and least expensive ways to determine shear strength, most researchers were used to measure stabilized soils' mechanical strength. This paper highlights the most frequently used industrial wastes used to synthesize geopolymers. The review enables researchers to acquire es-sential and complementary inputs for future research.

[...] Read more.
Automatic plant Irrigation Control System Using Arduino and GSM Module

By S. Akwu U. I. Bature K. I. Jahun M. A. Baba A. Y. Nasir

DOI: https://doi.org/10.5815/ijem.2020.03.02, Pub. Date: 8 Jun. 2020

The evolving information technology abridges the hardship in the daily life of consumers all over the world, hence the application of this knowledge in the irrigation field is necessary nowadays. The exponential growth of demand in food is due to the ever-evolving population of the world, thus it becomes necessary to expand the present area of cultivation. Considering the present situation of weather change due to global warming as a result of industrial activities, farming via irrigation is the reliable process of food production. Water remains the only source for survival for crop production, thus optimal management and proper use of water become pertinent with the ever-increasing land for irrigation. Arduino based automatic plant irrigation control system; provides a simple approach to automated irrigation. This work makes use of the GSM module for the notification of the user about the situation in the farm, this project aims to design and implement an automatic plant irrigation control system using Arduino and GSM module. In this proposed system, there are two main parts hardware and software units. Mechanical units which are the hardware unit comprises of instrumentation systems and watering irrigation systems. The equipment system is based on microcontroller, flow meter, moisture sensor, LCD, and GSM module. The software part comprises of C++ code, this is to enable the linkage between various modules. The main control of this system is the microcontroller unit that serves as the brain for coordinating control for various modules of the system, it synchronizes and operates the watering system and notifies the user about the condition of the field and watering section via GSM module. Implementation of this project will significantly help in a water-saving of about 30 – 50% as compared to the conventional watering system like the sprinkler, improve growth and discourage weeds because water will only be served to the needed area, simple method and timer-based system for automatic watering can be incorporated for efficiency.

[...] Read more.
Fully Automated Hydroponics System for Smart Farming

By Hariram M Shetty Kshama Pai K Navaneeth Mallya Pratheeksha

DOI: https://doi.org/10.5815/ijem.2021.04.04, Pub. Date: 8 Aug. 2021

This project is focused on developing a Fully Automatic Hydroponics system which helps in monitoring and controlling temperature, Humidity, pH and EC in Hydroponics. Hydroponics is a method of growing crops without soil. Plants are grown in rows or on trellises, just like in a traditional garden, but they have their roots in water rather than in dirt. Although, there are different ways in which hydroponics can be implemented, there is no individual system which can measure and control pH and EC level of nutrient solution along with its surrounding temperature and humidity automatically. We use PIC16F877A microcontroller and four pumps, three of which are used to pump water, nutrient solution, pH solution and the fourth pump is used to control the humidity. A fan is used to control the temperature which increases its speed as the temperature increases. The pumps are turned on depending on the EC and pH values obtained from the electrodes. A passive LCD display is used to display variations in the values. Different Analysis like water usage, plant growth in comparison with regular farming method and hydroponics is successfully completed which results in hydroponics system is significant method in comparison with soiled cultivation method in terms of yield and water usage. This project is expected to produce high yield crops by taking minimal space, makes work easier for farmers in growing of plants, and also consumes less amount of water when compared to traditional method resulting in conservation of water.

[...] Read more.
Development of a Low-Cost Air Quality Data Acquisition IoT-based System using Arduino Leonardo

By Louis Anton A. Cruz Maria Teresa T. Grino Thea Marie V. Tungol Joel T. Bautista

DOI: https://doi.org/10.5815/ijem.2019.03.01, Pub. Date: 8 May 2019

Air pollution is responsible for an estimated 5.5 million deaths in 2013 which costed the global economy approximately US$225 billion in lost labor income. To address the problems caused by air pollution, this study aims to develop a low-cost and portable air quality monitoring system that detects the levels of CO, PM2.5, PM10, temperature, and humidity. Using Internet of Things (IoT), the data that the system gathers can be accessed through the internet. Moreover, the system assesses the obtained data through a comparative analysis with the AQI. The Iterative Design Loop method was used in the development of the air quality monitoring system. Furthermore, the sensors were programmed using the Arduino Integrated Development Environment (IDE). Using the Welch’s t-test, it was found that the obtained data of the system is not significantly different to that of the standard air quality monitoring systems. To achieve more accurate data from the developed system, the raw data of the developed and standard system were calibrated through an equation from the trendline. Through the use of Acer CloudProfessor, the study successfully developed an air quality monitoring system that can be accessed through the internet.

[...] Read more.
Machine Learning Approaches for Cancer Detection

By Ayush Sharma Sudhanshu Kulshrestha Sibi B Daniel

DOI: https://doi.org/10.5815/ijem.2018.02.05, Pub. Date: 8 Mar. 2018

Accurate prediction of cancer can play a crucial role in its treatment. The procedure of cancer detection is incumbent upon the doctor, which at times can be subjected to human error and therefore leading to erroneous decisions. Using machine learning techniques for the same can prove to be beneficial. Many classification algorithms such as Support Vector Machines (SVM) and Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) are proven to produce good classification accuracies. The following study models data sets for breast, liver, ovarian and prostate cancer using the aforementioned algorithms and compares them. The study covers data from condition of organs, which is called standard data and from gene expression data as well. This research has shown that SVM classifier can obtain better performance for classification in comparison to the ANN classifier.

[...] Read more.
Reliability Analysis Techniques in Distribution System: A Comprehensive Review

By Prakash Kafle Manila Bhandari Lalit B. Rana

DOI: https://doi.org/10.5815/ijem.2022.02.02, Pub. Date: 8 Apr. 2022

Quality of electricity with continuity is the reliability of the power system which is inversely proportional with the duration of power supply interruption. It depends on some expected or unexpected faults/failures on the systems, speed of protecting systems, preventive maintenance, and motivation of technical staffs. The detailed study of the distribution system is more crucial as its reliability is the concern of utility’s fame, service, customers’ satisfactions and reflects to the overall revenue. The relevant articles from the various sources has been collected and analyzed different reliability indices with their significance. Also, to realize the methodology related with reliability analysis, a comparative study among its different components has been carried out and the best techniques for maintaining system reliability are suggested.

[...] Read more.
Neural Networks-based Process Model and its Integration with Conventional Drum Level PID Control in a Steam Boiler Plant

By Douglas T. Mugweni Hadi Harb

DOI: https://doi.org/10.5815/ijem.2021.05.01, Pub. Date: 8 Oct. 2021

Controlling drum level is a major and crucial control objective in thermal power plant steam boilers. The drum level as a controlled variable is highly characterized by complex non-linear process dynamics as well as measurement noise and long-time delays. Developing a data-driven process model is particularly advantageous as it could be built from ongoing operational data. Such a model could be used to assist existing controllers by providing predictions regarding the drum level. The aim of this paper is to develop such a model and to propose a control architecture that can be easily integrated into existing control hardware. For that purpose, different neural networks are used, Multilayer Perceptron (MLP), Nonlinear Autoregressive Exogenous (NARX), and Long Short Term (LSTM) neural networks. LSTM and MLP were able to capture the dynamics of the process, but LSTM showed superior performance. The results demonstrate that the use of traditional machine learning criteria to evaluate a process model is not necessarily adequate. Using the model in an open-loop and a closed-loop simulation is more suitable to test its ability to capture the dynamics of the process. A novel architecture that integrates the process model within an existing closed-loop controller is proposed. The architecture uses adaptive weights to ensure that a good model is given more influence than a bad model on the controller’s output.

[...] Read more.
Fire and Motion Early Warning Device: Its Design and Development

By Ronnie Camilo F. Robles Ruth G. Luciano Rolaida L. Sonza Arnold P. Dela Cruz Mariel Cabrillas

DOI: https://doi.org/10.5815/ijem.2021.06.01, Pub. Date: 8 Dec. 2021

Cases of theft and robbery of computers, CCTV equipment, and LCD projector have become more frequent in schools. In addition, fire hazards are great threat to educational institutions where expensive learning materials are kept. Such incidents could be lessened and avoided if schools are equipped with appropriate security systems capable of monitoring and informing people about the coming possible danger. Thus, the development of Fire and Motion Early Warning Device (FMEWD) is timely and relevant. FMEWD consists of a website and interconnected devices and sensors intended to provide an efficient and effective warning system for preventing incidents relating to fire, smoke, and intrusion within an office. Upon detection, the system automatically sends an email and SMS to registered users. This study used the Agile Development Model which allows features to be delivered quickly and more frequently with higher levels of predictability. Evidently, the integration of different technologies conceptualized by the researcher addresses the pressing security concerns faced by educational institutions like NEUST.

[...] Read more.
Fully Automated Hydroponics System for Smart Farming

By Hariram M Shetty Kshama Pai K Navaneeth Mallya Pratheeksha

DOI: https://doi.org/10.5815/ijem.2021.04.04, Pub. Date: 8 Aug. 2021

This project is focused on developing a Fully Automatic Hydroponics system which helps in monitoring and controlling temperature, Humidity, pH and EC in Hydroponics. Hydroponics is a method of growing crops without soil. Plants are grown in rows or on trellises, just like in a traditional garden, but they have their roots in water rather than in dirt. Although, there are different ways in which hydroponics can be implemented, there is no individual system which can measure and control pH and EC level of nutrient solution along with its surrounding temperature and humidity automatically. We use PIC16F877A microcontroller and four pumps, three of which are used to pump water, nutrient solution, pH solution and the fourth pump is used to control the humidity. A fan is used to control the temperature which increases its speed as the temperature increases. The pumps are turned on depending on the EC and pH values obtained from the electrodes. A passive LCD display is used to display variations in the values. Different Analysis like water usage, plant growth in comparison with regular farming method and hydroponics is successfully completed which results in hydroponics system is significant method in comparison with soiled cultivation method in terms of yield and water usage. This project is expected to produce high yield crops by taking minimal space, makes work easier for farmers in growing of plants, and also consumes less amount of water when compared to traditional method resulting in conservation of water.

[...] Read more.
A Review on Stabilization of Soft Soils with Geopolymerization of Industrial Wastes

By Tadesse A. Wassie Gokhan Demir

DOI: https://doi.org/10.5815/ijem.2023.02.01, Pub. Date: 8 Apr. 2023

Geopolymers are inorganic aluminosilicate polymers that solidify into ceramic-like substances at tempera-tures close to ambient. The elements in silicate oxide (SiO2) and aluminum oxide (Al2O3) are essential for the hardening of geopolymers because they combine with other elements to create N-A-S-H formation, which gives the material its distinctive strength. Geopolymers based on industrial wastes are increasingly being used to stabilize soft soils. Fly ash, GGBS, metakaolin, glass powders, and others are a few of the industrial wastes that aid in synthesizing geopolymers. Several experimental studies were carried out to determine the mechanical strength, durability, and microstructure im-provement of soft soils stabilized with geopolymers. Some of the experiments include X-ray diffraction (XRD), scan-ning electron microscopy (SEM), unconfined compression testing (UCS), and durability testing. The main objective of this review was to assess the different types of binders, binder ratios, alkali activator types, alkali activator concentra-tions, and other parameters used in synthesizing geopolymers. The binder's proportion varies between 5% and 30% of the soil's dry weight. Researchers commonly use sodium silicate (Na2SiO3) and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution for the alkali activator. Since the unconfined compression test is one of the quickest and least expensive ways to determine shear strength, most researchers were used to measure stabilized soils' mechanical strength. This paper highlights the most frequently used industrial wastes used to synthesize geopolymers. The review enables researchers to acquire es-sential and complementary inputs for future research.

[...] Read more.
Comparative Study on Temple Structural Element Segmentation using Different Segmentation Techniques

By Narendra Kumar S Shrinivasa Naika C. L. Gurudev S. Hiremath

DOI: https://doi.org/10.5815/ijem.2023.02.04, Pub. Date: 8 Apr. 2023

India's Karnataka state is home to a vast treasure trove of artefacts, antiquities, and historic and archaeologically significant monuments. Its culture and tradition are linked. In Karnataka, there are numerous Neolithic and Megalithic structures; these historic buildings from illustrious ruling dynasties have endured for thousands of years. They have miracles of their own in their own style, innate sculpture, architecture, technique, immensity, and enormity. However, modern generation is not ready for mining archaeological knowledge regarding empires or ruling dynasties of these ancient Karnataka temples through the archaeological guidance. Hence, a new approach required to bring this valuable information to the modern generation by a proper platform. In this paper both threshold and regional based segmentation methods are applied in order to segment the structural elements of temple. The analysis of segmented structural elements by applying both methods is done in order to provide comparative study. Comparative study on temple structural element shows that regional segmentation is more accurate than threshold method based on VOE and DSC metrics which are used for evaluating the performance of segmentation methods. Further, more efficient segmentation approaches may be applied to improve the efficiency of segmentation and it may be used for classification of viman styles.

[...] Read more.
Interpolation Method for Identification of Brain Tumor from Magnetic Resonance Images

By Sugandha Singh Vipin Saxena

DOI: https://doi.org/10.5815/ijem.2023.02.05, Pub. Date: 8 Apr. 2023

During the past years, it is observed from the literature that, identification of the brain tumor identification in human being is gaining popularity. Diagnosing any disease without manual interaction with great accuracy makes computer science research more demanding, therefore, the present work is related to identify the tumor clots in the affected patients. For this purpose, a well-known Safdarganj Hospital, New Delhi, India is consulted and 2165 Magnetic Resonance Images (MRI) of a single patient are collected through scanning, and interpolation technique of numerical method used to identify the accurate position of the brain tumor. A system model is developed and implemented by the use of Python programming language and MATLAB for the identification of affected areas in the form of a contour of a patient. The desired accuracy and specificity are evaluated using the computed results and also presented in the form of graphs.

[...] Read more.
Development of a Mobile Liquid Spraying Machine for Small and Medium Scale Crop Production

By Olayinka Mohammed Olabanji

DOI: https://doi.org/10.5815/ijem.2022.04.02, Pub. Date: 8 Aug. 2022

This article presents the design, simulation, fabrication and performance evaluation of a liquid spraying machine for application of pesticides in a small and medium scale crop plantation. In this article, components of the conceptualized spraying machine were modelled and assembled in SolidWorks CAD environment. The modelled components were designed in order to obtain design parameters for simulation. An extensive simulation on the stress and strain analysis was carried out on the designed components. The significance of the simulation is to predict the structural integrity and performance of the component parts of the machine before fabrication. The components were fabricated from locally sourced material in order to ensure a lower cost of production. The fabricated spraying machine was tested and the performance indicated that a field efficiency of 79% is obtainable in an average time of 1374 s to spray a maize crop field area of 1813 m2 having an average crop height of 0.52m. Further observations from the performance analysis also show that the field efficiency of the spraying machine drops to a value of 75% when used in a crop field area of 2206.3 m2. This is an indication that the spraying machine’s efficiency will reduce as the field area increases. In essence, the significance of the approach presented in this article is to ensure that the simulation predicts the performance of the design and the fabrication of the spraying machine using locally sourced material will ensure lower cost of fabrication.

[...] Read more.
Towards the Development a Cost-effective Earthquake Monitoring System and Vibration Detector with SMS Notification Using IOT

By Shaina Delia G. Tomaneng Jubert Angelo P. Docdoc Susanne A. Hierl Patrick D. Cerna

DOI: https://doi.org/10.5815/ijem.2022.06.03, Pub. Date: 8 Dec. 2022

As one of the countries situated in the Pacific Ring of Fire, the Philippines suffers from an inexhaustible number of natural disasters every year. One of the most destructible ones is the occurrence of earthquakes. Because of the high damage that earthquakes incur, along with their inevitability and unpredictability, developing effective methods of earthquake damage mitigation as well as disaster preparedness is imperative to lessen the negative impacts it is capable of producing in communities. One efficient way of doing this is by implementing an earthquake early warning (EEW) system that is capable of sending message alerts to receivers to warn them in the event of a hazardous earthquake. With this objective, this study centers on creating an earthquake detector with SMS messaging to function as an EEW system with an added advantage of being low-cost to make it more accessible to the public. Using electronic components based on an Arduino Mega 2560 and a Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) module, the earthquake detector and its alert message system were created. A series of tests in different locations across Butuan City was then performed to assess the device’s accuracy in measuring different Intensity levels when subjected to surface vibrations. Comparative analysis showed that its recorded values. Corresponded with the values obtained from accelerometer-based mobile applications. In conclusion, the study was deemed functional in its ability to detect low and high surface vibrations, which proves that it is successful in detecting earthquake tremors and vibrations in the event of an earthquake.

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